Health Testing






































































































19th December, 2013

PROGRESSIVE RETINAL ATROPHY IN TIBETAN TERRIERS
DNA TESTING
(available from 1st January, 2014)

20% Discount from 1st January - 31st January, 2014

Your Coupon Code for a 20% discount is given below with the dates it will be valid from and to. 
The code can be used on our Webshop http://www.ahtdnatesting.co.uk/.  

At Step 4 (CLIENT INFO), just below the word Checkout, there is an orange box with ADD A COUPON written in it. 

Click on that box and you go to a page called SHOPPING BASKET where there is a space to add a Discount Code. 
Put the code in the box and click on the words ADD A COUPON in the orange box next to it. 

Click on RECALCULATE in the orange box to get the price with the Discount Code.

It is a condition of that discount that 20 or more samples are submitted during the time that the Coupon Code is active. 
Please note that the Coupon Code must be entered exactly as it is entered here, 
without any spaces and with capital lettering. 

Coupon Code OMHRM1249

__________________

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA3) in Tibetan Terriers
 
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) is a well-recognised inherited condition that many breeds of dog are predisposed to. The condition is characterised by bilateral degeneration of the retina which causes progressive vision loss that culminates in total blindness. There is no treatment for PRA, of which several genetically distinct forms are recognised, each caused by a different mutation in a specific gene. The various forms of PRA are typically breed-specific, with clinically affected dogs of the same breed usually sharing an identical mutation. Clinically affected dogs of different breeds, however, usually have different mutations, although PRA-mutations can be shared by several breeds.
Mutation Identified
Geneticists at the Kennel Club Genetics Centre at the Animal Health Trust have discovered a mutation that causes a form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in Tibetan Terriers. We are calling this form of the disease PRA3 to distinguish it from other, genetically distinct, forms of PRA that are caused by different mutations, including the previously reported RCD4 mutation that is also known to cause PRA in some Tibetan Terriers. Together the PRA3 and RCD4 mutations account for approximately half of Tibetan Terrier PRA cases that we investigated during our research, although the number of samples from dogs with PRA was small and these proportions might not be representative of the wider population. During the latter half of 2013 the AHT will collaborate with the Kennel Club (KC) to screen a random subset of KC registered Tibetan Terriers to determine the frequency of both mutations more accurately. The mutation(s) that cause PRA in the other affected Tibetan Terriers remain(s) unknown and cannot therefore be detected by any DNA test at present.
As for RCD4, the PRA3 mutation is recessive, meaning a dog needs to inherit two copies of the mutation to be clinically affected with PRA. PRA3 is a late-onset condition and clinical signs can usually be detected by an ophthalmologist from 4-7 years of age. The onset of RCD4 is variable, but is usually around 10 years of age. Any Tibetan terrier that has 2 copies of either the PRA-3 or RCD4 mutation will develop PRA, assuming it lives long enough to do so.
A DNA test for PRA3 will become available from the Animal Health Trust July 8th, 2013. Breeders using the test will be sent results identifying their dog as belonging to one of three categories:
CLEAR: these dogs have two normal copies of DNA. Clear dogs will not develop PRA as a result of the PRA3 mutation, although we cannot exclude the possibility they might develop PRA due to other mutations they might carry that are not detected by this test.
CARRIER: these dogs have one copy of the mutation and one normal copy of DNA. These dogs will not develop PRA themselves as a result of the PRA3 but they will pass the mutation on to approximately 50% of their offspring. We cannot exclude the possibility that carriers might develop PRA due to other mutations they might carry that are not detected by this test.
GENETICALLY AFFECTED: these dogs have two copies of the PRA3 mutation and will almost certainly develop PRA during their lifetime. 

Advice From Animal Health Trust
The mutation is recessive which means that all dogs can be bred from safely but carriers and genetically affected dogs should only be bred to DNA tested, clear dogs. About half the puppies from any litter that has a carrier parent will themselves be carriers and any dogs from such litters that will be used for breeding should themselves be DNA tested prior to breeding so appropriate mates can be selected. 
It is advisable for all breeding dogs to have their eyes clinically examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist prior to breeding and throughout their lives, with at least one examination occurring when the dog is at least 8 years of age, so that any cases of PRA caused by additional mutations can be detected and that newly emerging conditions can be identified.





30th May, 2013

UPDATE ON PROGRESSIVE RETINAL ATROPHY IN TIBETAN TERRIERS

The Breed Club’s health sub-committee, being: Pat Tempest, Philippa Gilbert, Mark James and Wendy Gardner, representing T.T.A. and T.T.B.O.C., have issued the following statement to clarify the current position regarding the D.N.A. testing of Tibetan Terriers for P.R.A., in conjunction with the Animal Health Trust.
P.R.A. is a degenerative condition of the retina of the eye.  This can be caused by several different mutations, all of which are independent of each other, each giving the same clinical presentation.  It would appear that the age of onset may vary dependent upon the mutation.  So far research at the A.H.T. has identified two mutations in a limited number of Tibetan Terriers affected, used in their research.  In the D.N.A. of some clinically affected dogs, neither of these mutations were present.  This indicates there will be a further mutation or mutations.   Following their advice, and in discussion with them, it has been agreed that we will support their action in undertaking a random population sampling to identify the significance of both of these mutations.
The results of the survey will allow considered decisions regarding the scheduling of the available PRA tests.


10th May, 2013

PROGRESSIVE RETINAL ATROPHY IN TIBETAN TERRIERS


Geneticists at the Kennel Club Genetics Centre at the Animal Health Trust have discovered a mutation that causes a form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in Tibetan Terriers. We are calling this form of the disease PRA3 to distinguish it from other, genetically distinct, forms of PRA that are caused by different mutations, including the previously reported RCD4 mutation that is also known to cause PRA in some Tibetan Terriers. Together the PRA3 and RCD4 mutations account for approximately half of Tibetan Terrier PRA cases that we investigated during our research, although the number of samples from dogs with PRA was small and these proportions might not be representative of the wider population. During the latter half of 2013 the AHT will collaborate with the Kennel Club (KC) to screen a random subset of KC registered Tibetan Terriers to determine the frequency of both mutations more accurately. The mutation(s) that cause PRA in the other affected Tibetan Terriers remain(s) unknown and cannot therefore be detected by any DNA test at present.

As for RCD4, the PRA3 mutation is recessive, meaning a dog needs to inherit two copies of the mutation to be clinically affected with PRA. PRA3 is a late-onset condition and clinical signs can usually be detected by an ophthalmologist from 4-7 years of age. The onset of RCD4 is variable, but is usually around 10 years of age. Any Tibetan terrier that has 2 copies of either the PRA-3 or RCD4 mutation will develop PRA, assuming it lives long enough to do so.

A DNA test for PRA3 will become available from the Animal Health Trust July 8th, 2013 

Full details will be made available on our website shortly: 

http://www.aht.org.uk/cms-display/genetics_tests.html

download PDF statement HERE





3rd May, 2013

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT FROM ANIMAL HEALTH TRUST REGARDING PRA
from Cathryn Mellersh PhD
Head of Canine Genetics

New PRA DNA Test Available to Tibetan Terriers from 8th July, 2013


http://www.ahtdnatesting.co.uk


I am very pleased to be able to tell you that geneticists from the Kennel Club Genetics Centre at the Animal Health Trust have identified a mutation that causes progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in the Tibetan Spaniel and Tibetan Terrier. 
 
A DNA test based on this mutation will become available July 8th, 2013.
 
The mutation was identified by Louise Downs, as part of her PhD studies, and represents the culmination of over a decade of investigation by Louise and other members of the research team into this condition.
 
There are many people I  would like to thank for their contributions towards this success, including all the owners and ophthalmologists who have contributed DNA and information from their dogs & patients to the project and the PetPlan Charitable Trust, the Kennel Club Charitable Trust and all the Breed Clubs and individuals who have supported the research financially.





IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT FROM ANIMAL HEALTH TRUST REGARDING PRA

PRA DNA Test Available to Tibetan Terriers

In 2011 geneticists working in the Kennel Club Genetics Centre at the Animal Health Trust identified a recessive mutation that is associated with the development of Late Onset Progressive Retinal Atrophy (LOPRA) in the Gordon Setter. Owners of Gordon Setters with LOPRA report that their affected dogs develop night blindness in the first instance, which is indicative of a rod-cone degeneration, so we termed this mutation rcd4 (for rod-cone degeneration 4) to distinguish it from other, previously described, forms of rod-cone degeneration.
Following our work in the Gordon Setter we have found the rcd4 mutation in PRA affected dogs of other breeds, including the Irish and English setter and now also the Tibetan terrier. As a result the AHT will make the rcd4 DNA test available to Tibetan terriers, from October 2nd, 2012. The DNA test we are offering examines the DNA from each dog being tested for the presence or absence of this precise mutation and is thus a ‘mutation-based test’ and not a ‘linkage-based test’.
Information about the rcd4 test, including details about how to order a test for your dog(s) are available here:

http://www.ahtdnatesting.co.uk


Other Forms of PRA in the Tibetan Terrier

We have tested DNA from 11 Tibetan terriers affected with PRA and found 2 of them were homozygous (carried two copies) for the rcd4 mutation. This indicates that there is at least one additional, genetically distinct, form of PRA segregating in the Tibetan terrier, that is caused by an as yet unidentified mutation and that this additional mutation(s) is probably more common than the rcd4 mutation. At the time of writing (September 2012) we are investigating the frequency of the rcd4 mutation in a random subset of Tibetan Terriers and expect to be able to update the Tibetan terrier community with the results by the end of October 2012. It is important for owners to appreciate that the rcd4 DNA test detects the rcd4 mutation only and cannot provide any information regarding the additional, currently unknown PRA mutation(s).





Adult-Onset Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis In Tibetan Terriers

The Animal Health Trust is pleased to be able to announce the launch of a DNA test for adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) in Tibetan Terriers. The causative mutation for this devastating disease was identified and reported in 2011 by a collaboration between US and European scientists as a tiny deletion of DNA in a gene called ATP13A2.

The development of the test at the AHT has been a result of a collaboration with Tibetan Terrier breeders in the UK who generously sent samples in from their dogs to enable us to develop and validate the test.

The test will be available through our Webshop (http://www.ahtdnatesting.co.uk) from 21st May, 2012 where cheek swab sampling kits can be ordered.

As an introductory offer, the NCL test is offered in combination with the test for primary lens luxation for £48 inc VAT. The NCL test is available alone for £30 inc VAT.



- Statement from The Kennel Club -
31st January, 2011


        NEW DNA TESTING SCHEME

At the request of the Tibetan Terrier Clubs, the Kennel Club has recently approved a new official DNA testing scheme for Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL).  This test is offered by the Orthopaedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) in America and further details can be obtained from them at   www.offa.org

Copies of all test results (past and future) issued by OFA will be sent directly to the Kennel Club, where the test result will be added to the dog’s details on the registration database.  This will trigger the publication of the test result in the next available Breed Records Supplement, the result will also appear on any new registration certificate issued for the dog and on the registration certificates of any future progeny of the dog, and it will be available via the Kennel Club’s Health Test Result Finder.

Owners who have already had their dog(s) DNA tested for this condition can send copies of the test certificate into the Kennel Club and the data will be added to the dog’s registration details. In addition, if the owner includes the original registration certificate for the dog (not a copy) then a new registration certificate will be issued, with the DNA result on it, free of charge.  Please send the DNA test certificates to:

Health & Breeder Services Department 
The Kennel Club
1 – 5 Clarges Street
Piccadilly
London
W1J 8AB

For further information on this scheme please contact Professor Jeff Sampson at jeff.sampson@thekennelclub.org.uk.



Statements received by email 19th July, 2010

Good Afternoon Everyone,
Please see the note below that I received this afternoon from Liz Hansen on behalf of the lab at the University of Missouri.
In summary, the disease causing genetic mutation is not in question.  However, the original test design and a subsequent fix were both flawed in terms of interpreting results at the mutation site due to a another mutation (previously unknown and unrelated to the disease) found in some of the dogs.  This mutation is located in the same region as the NCL mutation, and this affected the amplification process needed to correctly read and interpret the test results at the mutation site.
This region is being re-sequenced at the University of Missouri, as well as independently by a 3rd party specialized commercial laboratory to corroborate the results.  Once testing is verified, a group of control samples as well as all samples that generated questionable results will be rerun.  If there are no exceptions in analyzing those results (ie, clear producing an affected, or old age unsymptomatic dogs testing affected), every dog tested as either carrier or affected on the earlier tests will be rerun and re-reported.
Until then, all TT NCL results have been pulled from the web to avoid any further anxiety of possible incorrect posting of results.
On behalf of the OFA I sincerely apologize for the error on our end late last week which allowed a number of interim/non-final test results to load to the web pre-maturely, this list contained approximately 40 dogs, most of you on this distribution were directly impacted by owning or knowing of one of these dogs.
In addition, I know the University of MO has been working non-stop to correct the matter and rectify the problems which have been subsequently discovered with the interpretation of results.
Both the U of MO and the OFA are taking the issue very seriously, and have every intention of providing owners with accurate test results.
I am committed to keep each of you informed on any new developments.
Thank you,
Eddie Dziuk                
Chief Operating Officer
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
Website:  www.offa.org



Dear Tibetan Terrier owner,
We would like to update you on the status of the DNA test for NCL. As we acknowledged last month, a problem with the design of our test became apparent when we began testing primarily with samples collected by cheek swab. We redesigned the test, and believed we could begin reporting revised results last week. However, we then found that there were some exceptions, or “impossible” results with the new test (a normal parent producing an affected offspring, affected parent with normal offspring, or elderly dogs testing affected but still alive, which are all impossible). On Friday, we identified a rare, neutral mutation site nearby the location of the mutation that causes NCL. This second mutation has no relationship to the disease, but a mutation at this second site caused the redesigned test to read incorrectly in the few dogs where it is present. Another redesign of the test is being evaluated now, and when we are confident that it will produce correct results without fail, we will again retest all the samples that have given carrier or affected results previously.
We want to make clear that the mutation causing NCL is not in question. The problem has been with the design of the test that allows the mutation site to be evaluated. Unfortunately, our first 2 designs of the test resulted in appearance of rare, but not unheard of, problems that can happen with DNA testing. Real life DNA research and testing is not as fast or clear-cut as it appears on TV shows. Our efforts are focused on resolving this and getting all concerned TT owners accurate test results. We ask your patience as we work through this. We understand that you all want results as soon as possible, and we will get them to you – but we want them to be correct, more than we want them to be speedy.
We apologize for any distress or concern this situation has caused. Please rest assured that we will report results just as soon as we can be certain that they are reliable and correct.
Thank you,
Liz Hansen, on behalf of the staff at AMGL & Dr Gary Johnson
Animal Molecular Genetics Laboratory
University of Missouri - College of Veterinary Medicine   
                      


PLL GENETIC TESTING
2/11/09
 
Joint Statement by The Tibetan Terrier Association & The Tibetan Terrier Breeder & Owners Club
regarding the genetic test for Primary Lens Luxation, and its implication for breeding
 
We strongly recommend that all breeding stock has a known genetic status for Primary Lens Luxation. 
 
This can be determined by a DNA test offered by the Animal Health Trust or as a consequence of knowing both parents are genetically clear. 
The test can be obtained privately from the Animal Health Trust and taken to your vet where the permanent identification
is then verified by their signature, or through clinics run by the Tibetan Terrier clubs.   
 
Dogs which are carriers will not develop the condition.  No tested carrier TT’s have yet gone on to develop PLL. 
 
It is essential that carriers are only mated to genetically clear dogs.
As the offspring have the potential to be carriers we advise that the litter be tested prior to sale
   and wherever possible only the clears should be used in future breeding. It is hoped that no second generation carriers will be bred from. 
 
 We recommend that the genetic status of any puppies sold is fully explained to new owners. 
Carrier puppies should be sold with breeding endorsement ‘Progeny Not Eligible For Registration’.
  This endorsement should be fully explained to potential owner and a signature of acceptance obtained.


PLL TESTING KITS

testing kits are now available from the Animal Health Trust
please contact either: 
the Animal Health Trust                 dnatesting@aht.org.uk
or 
TTA Chairman Mrs Pat Tempest     ttachairman@aol.com    
 
Animal Health Trust Link

 


reproduced with kind permission from The Kennel Club

KENNEL CLUB STATEMENT
this statement was published on the Kennel Club website 2/11/09
 
New DNA Testing Schemes
At the request of the relevant breed clubs, the Kennel Club has recently approved official DNA testing schemes for PLL in the Tibetan Terrier and the Miniature Bull Terrier.
These tests are offered by the Animal Health Trust - further details can be obtained from www.aht.org.uk.
Copies of all future test certificates issued by the AHT will be sent directly to the Kennel Club where the test result will be added to the dog’s details on the registration
database.  This will trigger the publication of the test result in the next available Breed Records Supplement, and the result will also appear
on any new registration certificate issued for the dog and on the registration certificates of any future progeny of the dog.
 
For further information on this scheme please contact Professor Jeff Sampson at jeff.sampson@thekennelclub.org.uk.


The Tibetan Terrier is a very natural dog which has evolved, both naturally and by man’s selective breeding, without any exaggerations. 
In general it is a very healthy breed with a good disposition.
 
Like all breeds we do know of some inherited conditions which affect TT’s.  The breed is very fortunate to have recognised and accepted, some thirty years ago,
that a positive approach was required in order to reduce the incidence of these conditions to a minimum.
 
The Tibetan Terrier Association has a breeder’s list and the breeders on this list agree to abide by the Club’s rules and guidelines. The main ones are:
 1.   Dogs and Bitches being bred from should hold a current BVA/KC Eye Certificate, or equivalent from outside the UK.
 2.   Dogs and Bitches being bred must have had their hips X-Rayed for Hip Dysplasia and achieved a good score. The current breed average is a score of 14 (which is very good, the score can range from 0 -106, the lower the better).
The main hereditary breed abnormalities that we test for are:
      1.   PRA    abbreviation of Progressive Retina Atrophy
      2.   PLL     abbreviation of Primary Lens Luxation
      3.   HD      abbreviation of Hip Dysplasia
Another condition that can affect our breed is Neuronal Ceroid Lipofucinosis (NCL). 
Over the last 5 years there have been the following confirmed cases in respect of PRA and PLL:
                                                PLL                PRA

2003                                          0                        1

2004                                          2                        1

2005                                          0                        1
 
2006                                          2                        0
 
2007                                          0                        1
 
 
When you purchase a puppy you should always ask to see the relevant eye and hip certificates for both parents. The test results are also printed on the Kennel Club registration paperwork you will receive from the breeder of your puppy.  The Tibetan Terrier Association was one of the main instigator’s in having the eye and hip results printed on the registration certificates.
Over the last 23 years there have been 57 confirmed cases of PRA & PLL. The total number of TT’s registered with the Kennel Club for the same period is 22,224.  Of course there will be cases that have not been recorded, and also many TT’s that have not been registered.
We only have the relevant paperwork for 2 cases of NCL. 
The Animal Health Trust is doing a lot of work to try and find a DNA marker for PRA and we do keep in touch with them. 
If you have any further questions please contact the breed club health sub-committee through the TTA chairman via the club web site.http://www.ahtdnatesting.co.uk/http://www.aht.org.uk/cms-display/genetics_tests.htmlHealth_files/PRA3%20Information_Tibetan%20Terriers_May%202013.pdfhttp://www.ahtdnatesting.co.ukhttp://www.ahtdnatesting.co.ukhttp://www.ahtdnatesting.co.ukhttp://www.offa.orgmailto:jeff.sampson@thekennelclub.org.ukhttp://www.offa.org/mailto:dnatesting@aht.org.ukmailto:ttachairman@aol.comhttp://www.aht.org.uk/news.html#pllhttp://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/item/2763/23/5/3http://www.aht.org.uk/mailto:jeff.sampson@thekennelclub.org.ukshapeimage_1_link_0shapeimage_1_link_1shapeimage_1_link_2shapeimage_1_link_3shapeimage_1_link_4shapeimage_1_link_5shapeimage_1_link_6shapeimage_1_link_7shapeimage_1_link_8shapeimage_1_link_9shapeimage_1_link_10shapeimage_1_link_11shapeimage_1_link_12shapeimage_1_link_13shapeimage_1_link_14
USEFUL LINKS

HIP SCORES A TO Z - 2014

HIP SCORES A TO Z (Up To 2014)
(updated 30.6.14)

KENNEL CLUB DNA TEST RESULTS FOR TIBETAN TERRIERS

KENNEL CLUB HEALTH TEST RESULTS FINDER

KENNEL CLUB HEALTH INFORMATION FOR TIBETAN TERRIERS
Health_files/HIP%20SCORES%202014.pdfHealth_files/HIP%20SCORES%20A%20TO%20Z_as%20at%2030%20A.pdfhttp://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/health/health-information-and-resources/dna-testing-and-tools/dna-screening-schemes-and-results/dna-screening-for-breeds-s-z/tibetan-terrier-dna-screening/http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/services/public/mateselect/test/Default.aspxhttp://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/services/public/breed/health.aspx?id=4104shapeimage_2_link_0shapeimage_2_link_1shapeimage_2_link_2shapeimage_2_link_3shapeimage_2_link_4











THE KENNEL CLUB  HEALTH PAGE

EXTRACT FROM TTA CODE OF ETHICS


full Code Of Ethics on The Club page


ii) BREEDING

Dogs which are clinically affected or genetically affected for PLL,PRA or NCL should not be bred from.  

All breeding stock should be tested in accordance with the KC Health Schemes for the breed.

When carriers of inherited diseases are identified from DNA testing they should only be mated with a genetically clear dog.   All the resulting progeny should be tested prior to sale or sold as potential carriers.

All information on hereditary defects should be made available for open publication in the T.T.A Registers, T.T.Talk, and should then become the property of the Association’s B.R.H.S.C.

Breeding stock should be wormed, and possess a current clear eye certificate and should be X-rayed for HD in accordance with KC/BVA schemes.


Ideally, bitches should be 18 months or older, when bred from, and not have reached 8 years at the time of whelping.


Ideally bitches should not be bred from more than once in a 12-month period.


Stud dog owners should satisfy themselves as to compatibility and soundness of any bitch together with discussion about hips, eye and NCL status (with documentation available) before agreeing to a mating.

The Association does not support to any degree, the breeding of T.T.’s on a commercial scale.

Members will, when breeding dogs, adopt as a minimum standard the principles, requirements and recommendations as embodied in the Kennel Club’s Assured Breeder Scheme.   It is also recommended that members who breed should apply to join the Scheme.

17/4/15


Irene Chamberlain Memorial Fund


We have set up the Irene Chamberlain Memorial Fund towards funding TT genome sequencing. Donations should be made payable to The AHT(Irene Chamberlain Memorial). This will ensure that all donations are ring fenced for the benefit of Tibetan Terriers.


  1. Whole Genome Sequencing – what is it and why do it?


  1. What is genome sequencing?


The genome is the term given to all the DNA that is needed to make a person, dog or other animal. The canine genome is a vast sequence of 2.5 billion letters, or bases, of DNA. The DNA which makes up the canine genome codes for around 20 thousand proteins which are needed to make the cells, tissue and organs of the body. The first complete human genome sequence was determined in the year 2000. Not long after, the genome of a boxer, named Tasha was sequenced – this sequence is known as the canine reference sequence.


  1. Why is sequencing the genomes of dogs from different breeds useful?


Dogs like people have different appearances and personalities, and these attributes are due to a mixture of what geneticists call environmental factors, such as nutrition, exercise, upbringing and so on and genetic factors. The genetic factors are due to variants in the canine genome. Some variants have no effect on the appearance or function of the body (known as the phenotype). Some variants are neutral, and although may cause a change to a phenotype, such as coat colour, do not negatively affect the function of the body. Variants that are disease causing and affect the function of the body are known as deleterious variants and are sometime also referred to as disease causing mutations.

Genome sequencing of different breeds of dogs is a hugely important new tool now available to geneticists at the Animal Health Trust. Each dog genome contains around 10 million variants compared to the canine reference sequence, and by genome sequencing healthy individuals for multiple dog breeds we can start to build up a profile of what variants make up healthy examples of each breed. The more individuals from different breeds we sequence, the clearer the picture of all the naturally occurring neutral variants will be.


  1. How will this help the Animal Health Trust find mutations that cause disease?


Once a vast database of neutral variants that are present in different dog breeds has been build up, we can then sequence the genomes of dogs affected by disease. By comparing variants in the disease affected dogs against the database of neutral variants, we can make a shortlist of potentially disease causing variants, with the help of some powerful computer analysis.


  1. How much does genome sequencing cost?


Genome sequencing currently costs around £2,000, and once a genome has been sequenced it is a permanent resource that geneticists at the Animal Health Trust can use now and for years to come, helping your breed of interest and many other breeds of dog in the process.


The Animal Health Trust has already used genome sequencing to help identify two different mutations responsible for inherited diseases in dogs, and we expect this number will increase very quickly, as we start to build up our bank of genomes of different breeds.


** DONATE HERE **


For more information contact Cathryn Mellersh cathryn.mellersh@aht.org.uk